Category: History

The Beginning of the Cold War: Similarities and Differences Between Socialism and Liberalism in the Nineteenth-Century Europe

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Since the Second World War, the world is divided into two: the capitalist nations and the communist nations. Communism being rooted to socialism, the conflict started in the nineteenth century Europe. Back then, capitalism, in the name of liberalism, was developing. Yet, some liberalists who found mistakes in capitalistic model of the society formulated Utopian Socialism. They both were similar that they valued equality, yet were different that liberalism valued economic liberty which led to poor condition of working when socialism emphasized equality of all social members which improved the working condition of the laborers.

It is true that both wanted equality of people. Liberalism of the nineteenth-century originated from enlightenment ideals, majorly summarized to equality and liberty. Since the beginning of French Revolution, liberalists, who were majorly consisted of bourgeoisies, advocated for expanded suffrage. The cahier de doléances written during the French Revolution shows that one of the most frequently appearing concerns about the government was equal political representation and fair voting system in the General Estate. Furthermore, the “Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen” signed during the French Revolution shows the ideas of the growing liberalism. The declaration states that all “men are born and remain free and equal in rights” and that “social distinctions can be founded only on the common good”. This declaration becomes the foundation of all classical liberalism ideals. Economic liberalists such as David Ricardo and Thomas Malthus do not distinguish men according to their class but only according to their personal interest. Also, political liberalists who believed in utilitarianism such as Jeremy Bentham believed that maximum happiness for the maximum number should be achieved. However, this statement also assumes the fact that all human beings are equal thus their happiness is valued equally. Similarly, the socialists during the nineteenth-century supported equality between all human being. The nineteenth century socialists, referred to as Utopian Socialists by later philosophers, dreamt of small societies in which all members of the community were valued equally (of course according to the natural law) by sharing the workload and profit of the community amongst the members equally. Examples of the Utopian Socialist communities are Phalansteries created by Charles Fourier and New Lanark created by Robert Owen. Charles Fourier created the Phalansteries in hope to create ideal societies in which individuals work equally for a common goal and earn equally. Also, New Lanark aimed to decreasing the economic gap between the poorly treated factory workers and the rich capitalists. The workers in New Lanark were paid more by the capitalists so that the general workers’ living condition got more equal to the managers’ compared to other factories around Europe. These examples show how Utopian socialists valued equality similar to how the liberalists of the nineteenth century did, if not more. As discussed above, this similarity accounts for the origin of the two ideas. Both liberalism and socialism originated from the ideals created during the French Revolution which emphasized the importance of liberty, equality, and fraternity in society. Thus, both ideas supported equality of all people.

Although liberalists and socialists aimed at general equality, their focus diverged on to what extent they expanded equality. Liberalists did value equality like how socialists did. However, they interpreted equality as non-interruption of social order to artificially create social difference unlike socialists who defined equality as state in which all human beings are held at equal value: equal working and equal earning. Adam Smith and Jeremy Bentham formulated the idea of Laissez-Faire and Utilitarianism which founded the nineteenth century liberalism which emphasized economic liberalism and individual self-interest. David Ricardo, a classical liberalism philosopher, was deeply influenced by Smith’s idea written in the Wealth of Nations. He then wrote books regarding economic phenomenon shown in nineteenth century Europe. Encompassing all economic situations, an assumption and a hypothesis that Ricardo and Smith make is that people will and should maximize self-interest to maximize profit. This sometimes may be presented unequal between different social groups, for example, Ricardo’s theory on wages says that the wage of any worker will tend toward the minimum wage that the worker can receive. Thus, the investors will maximize their interest while the laborers will receive just the right amount of money to survive, eventually increasing the gap between economic social classes. This shows how liberalists did believe in equality under law, yet advocated for inequality through fulfilling individual interests. Unlike liberalism, Utopian Socialists believed otherwise. They criticized capitalism for pursuing nothing but self-interest. Charles Fourier in his On Economic Liberalism writes that it is ridiculous that merchants can throw away tons of grain during the times of great famine just to increase grain price and maximize profit. He continues to say that thus, “commercial liberty should be subject to restrictions consistent with the needs of society as a whole” (Fourier). This shows that Fourier believed that general welfare should be above individual interest. Consistent to his argument, Fourier established phalansteries where community members worked for the common welfare rather than individual profit. Fourier’s idea shows that Utopian Socialists criticized liberalists’ emphasis on individual interest while highlighting the importance of general wellbeing of the society. The difference exists because Utopian Socialism came into being when philosophers tried to tackle problems of liberalism. Like Malthus, some inteligencias saw inequality between the poor and the rich. This led idealists like Fourier and Owen to construct the Utopian Socialism. Thus, the difference between liberalism and Utopian Socialism was inevitable.

Following the said difference, liberalism and socialism differed in ways they viewed workers. As discussed above, liberalists believed in maximizing individual self-interest. Yet, since the bourgeoisies who controlled the capital and the land owning aristocrats were the only social groups who could control their self-interest by either increasing or decreasing the profit, the laborers were not able to intervene in determining their profit. According to Ricardo, the wage of the laborer will tend toward the minimum amount of money that the worker can survive with and that is the Iron Law of wages. This is due to the assumption that most liberalists made: all economic participants will maximize their profit if they can. Since the bourgeoisies will maximize their profit, the expenditure on laborer will decrease toward the minimum amount they can receive. Thus, naturally, the living condition of the workers fell to a state in which laborers were forced to live in congested slums with basic clothing. However, unlike liberalists who maltreated their workers, Utopian Socialists provided their workers with comparatively higher standard of living. Robert Owen, developing his industry in New Lanark, gave workers higher wages. This was clearly against the assumptions of the liberalists while aligning with socialism since the capital-controlling bourgeoisie sacrificed his profit for the general welfare. The highly paid workers’ standard of living rose and the total revenue increased as well. With the increased production, workers’ wage increased more. This cycle demonstrates the Utopian Socialists’ belief in improving the working condition of the laborer. These differences occurred due to their difference in the emphasized value. Since liberalists believed that individual interests should be valued more, the working condition of the laborers will naturally fall in the process of maximizing the profit of the higher class when socialists believed that individual interest should be sacrificed for equality and general social welfare in which the laborer’s living condition will be enhanced.

To conclude, liberalism and socialism during the nineteenth century showed very different traits of belief despite their common root in the ideals of the French Revolution. These two major ideas of the nineteenth century Europe later grows to be the two dominant ideas of the world. Due to their ideological difference, physical and mental wars occur between many countries where many people die. The two ideologies, liberalism and socialism, are clearly different in terms of what they emphasis and how they manage. However, it is important to remember that they both aim for the same goal, equal society.

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Totalitarianism, its Definition and Implication on Modern Politics

161107120239-01-trump-parry-super-169In the election of 2016, Mr. Donald Trump won the American presidential election. Mr. Trump, for his populism based policies and violent attitude toward social minorities, is criticised ruthlessly by the opposing and even the same party members. One of his main policies that created social disturbance during the early stages of campaign, to build a wall on the Southern Border of the United States and to remove all illegal immigrants out of the country. These strong state based nationalistic policies were analysed by many journalists to follow the traits of totalitarian rulers. This essay will argue that indeed, it is unsafe to generalise Mr. Trump as a totalitarian and lead to a deeper discussion on what a safe historical analysis and its implementation on modern society is.

To debate whether Mr. Trump is or is not a totalitarian, the term totalitarianism should be defined using historical evidence to support the definition. Totalitarianism is a single party system based political structure promising nationalism and economic growth which uses strict security and police system to retain power.

Totalitarian governments are single party system based political structures that use security and police system to retain power. As the outcome of the election of November 1932, the Nazi party remained the biggest political party in Germany. Also, as the former chancellor Papen left office, Hitler was appointed the chancellor of Germany in January 1933. Although Hindenburg remained as president until 1934, Hitler was able to consolidate absolute power under himself. Hitler representing the Nazi party, passed the Reichstag fire decree and the enabling act in February and March 1933 respectively, which gave absolute legislative and executive power under Hitler. He used this power to outlaw all non-Nazi political parties. Through these steps, Hitler not only consolidated an individual led government but more importantly, a single party based political structure which did not check and balance the absolute leader. Also, Hitler used violent security to ensure his power. Schutzstaffel were the personal guards of Hitler. They were divided into units that served specific purposes in society. Gestapo in specific was the secret state police dressed up as civilians that would spy on and report illegal activities such as treason that happened in the private sectors of the German citizens. This strict security system enabled Hitler to stay in power.

Also, Stalin consolidated a single-party communist system. Lenin, with the Russian revolution, created a single communist government. This was passed on to Stalin who commissioned the Soviet Constitution which empowered the communist party as the only political party and Stalin as the absolute leader. To ensure his power, he created the NKVD, an intelligence agency that conducted political oppression. In the 1930s, using the NKVD, Stalin carried out several purges where he executed several thousands of people for being accused of political oppositions. The political opposition included rebellion leaders and possible assassinators of himself amongst the officials. Through strict politics based on terror, Stalin remained in power until the end of the World War.

Totalitarian governments use nationalism to gain popularity. Nation in modern society is defined as an “imagined political community – and imagined as both inherently limited and sovereign”. Hence, nationalism is an ideal that claims that the members of the nation are bonded to each other within the principles of nation. The commonality necessary to form a bond may include symbols such as flags to the shared identity such as ethnicity to language.  Hitler emphasised the German nation in order to gain popularity. The 25-point Program of the NSDAP claims that the Nazi party demanded “unification of all Germans in the Greater Germany on the basis of the people’s right to self-determination”, “substitution of a German common law in place of the Roman Law” and that “only a member of the race can be a citizen”. Given that these programs that the NSDAP party suggested for the election are deeply rooted in nationalistic ideals and that they are the first three programs suggested out of twenty-five, it can be said that the NSDAP party emphasised nationalism in their campaigning. Also, during his time as a chancellor of Germany, Hitler promoted strong boycotts and violent rampaging of Jewish shops and businesses. Despite of the enlightened ideas that were abundant within the European nation that all people are equal and the hyper-liberal metropolitan cities that illuminated Germany which embraced diversity, German public was supportive of these racially discriminatory policies as well as extremely German specific nationalistic programs. Given that Hitler won the election using programs that oppose the general norm of the German public, it came be safely claimed that Hitler and the Nazi Party rose to power with the promises of enlightening the failed German nationalism after the first World War, which the people valued over other liberal values such as equality of all.

Mussolini also used ideas of nationalism to gain popular support and to legitimise its power. The Italian identity has been defined by Roman and Christian values for Italy had prided their bearing of the great Roman Civilization. Mussolini, in The Doctrine of Fascism, calls on to Christian values. He emphasizes the “self-sacrifice, the renunciation of self-interest, by death itself… purely spiritual existence” using biblical allusions to promote state prioritization over individual. Also, the symbol of fascist party originated from the ancient roman object Fasces that symbolized the governor’s judicial and executive power in the Roman government. Mussolini used these symbols in his propagandas to ensure Italians that he will bring back the lost nationalism. During the 19th century, Italy went through unification which promised them a successful and a strong nation. However, at the end of World War 1, Italy, although being on the winners’ side, was left in great war damage while not being granted enough compensation. The consequences of the war failed the trust in Italians for their country. Hence, the Fascists who promised to light the fire of nationalism once again won the people’s demand for a successive country.

Furthermore, Stalin too embodied nationalistic ideas as well. The Soviet Constitution states that the Soviet is constituted with several Republics under a single Union where each Republic represents the specific ethnic group that reside in it. Also, each Republic was granted, to some extent, autonomy to legislate laws for its own benefit and execute them if it does not conflict with the laws of the Union. This shows that each unit of Republic would have been strongly bonded by their common ethnicity in its own Republic according to the principles of ethnic nationalism. However, by granting autonomy to individual Republics, the Soviet Union as a whole became decentralized. Nevertheless, the Union was able to reduce revolts thus gain more power through granting autonomy to all Republics by fulfilling the minor ethnic groups’ demand for self-determination. Although the Soviet Union did not establish national identity of the Soviet Union, by granting individual nationalism according to ethnic groups, the Soviet Union gained popularity and support.

Totalitarian governments promise the public to bring economic success and prosperity of the nation to gain power and eventually rise to power. After the Great War, Germany was devastated by the war reparation as compromised by the Treaty of Versailles and the economic depression of 1929. In the abyss of economic failure, Hitler gave German people realistic plans to save them from their devastated state. The 25-point program of the NSDAP party demands “abolition of unearned incomes… breaking of debt (interest)-slavery” and most importantly, “abrogation of the peace treaties of Versailles”. Along with policy changes, Hitler nationalized industries and gave orders to corporations on what they should and should not produce, increasing job opportunities and production. As a result, Porsche was ordered to create the Volkswagen, the people’s car. The beetle modeled cars along with several other industries increased middle, low-class spending on cheap luxury goods which eventually revived the German economy.

Mussolini too promised economic success to workers extensively for he got the most support from them. The basic doctrine behind fascism is to create efficiency. Thus, they divided the citizens into syndicates consisted of people with similar economic interests. For example, workers would be placed in the worker syndicate when lawyers would be placed in the lawyer syndicate. Through this system, the syndicates would vote for representatives who arrange the general interest of its syndicate and discuss it with other representatives from different syndicates in order to resolve conflicts. This efficient way of problem-solving between classes established several workers’ benefit such as increased wages. This shows that regardless of the total production, Mussolini ensured that the workers increased their benefits thus keeping the promise.

Stalin promises economic success to its nation. He posed the five-year plans to improve Russian economy. Nationally planned economy was primarily designed by Vladimir Lenin. However, Lenin’s plan failed as the agricultural production stagnated and the overall industrial production did not rise significantly. When Stalin gained power, he increased the state power over economy, thus increasing the frequency of government intervention in economy. The five-year plans that were created as the result of Stalin’s rise to power fostered several industries. The iron, coal and oil industry production increased by over 300%. This production increase put USSR next to America in terms of production, relieving the country from economic deprivation.

Analyzing the definition of totalitarianism in terms of Mr. Trump and his policies, it can be easily concluded that Mr. Trump and the republican government that will come to power in 2017 is not a totalitarian. Firstly, for the first time in many years, the parliament, as well as the president, are republican. Thus, despite the existence of the democrats, it has been speculated several times that the democrats will not have enough power to bring about change. This political situation resembles the single party system in which the legislative and the executive branch are tied to a single group of people. It is also true that Mr. Trump used extensively nationalistic policies to gain popularity. His main slogan for the campaign was “make America great again”. This slogan embodies the American nationalism as it demonstrates Trump’s belief in American prosperity. This is illustrated more dramatically when several of his policies are analyzed. Mr. Trump plans to reconsider all international relationships to evaluate if the particular relationship is beneficial to America. Also, he plans to establish a strong citizen based minimum wage system where the benefit of the American production goes to the American citizens. Furthermore, Mr. Trump’s policies regarding economy and taxation is very promising to the peasants. Mr. Trump aims at decreasing overall tax and abolish Obama care in order to reduce the additional compulsory payment. He also claims that he will increase job opportunities by building infrastructures and expanding on government cyber system. Nevertheless, Mr. Trump has not started his office yet. As a result, it seems too early to evaluate Mr. Trump if he fits within the definition of totalitarianism. This is evident since Mr. Trump has neither demonstrated if he will use strict and even violent securities and police to retain his power nor if he will achieve the economic goals that he has set. Thus, Mr. Trump cannot be called a totalitarian yet.

This inconsistency considering the future poses a deeper and a general historiographical question. Hitler, Mussolini and Stalin rose to power and declined. Modern day historians classify these individuals as totalitarian for their past works, treacherous or glorious. Although the word totalitarianism was used several times by politicians during the early and mid-20th century, the most significant use of totalitarianism was by Hannah Arendt who analyzed Hitler and Stalin to argue that they were not traditional tyranny but an entirely new form of government in 1951. This shows that although speculations of the totalitarian rulers were made during their times of regime, a formal historical analysis of the totalitarian government was made once the government had terminated. If so, can Mr. Trump be analyzed as a totalitarian in terms of history even though he has not completed and even more so started his career as a politician? More deeply, can current issues or events that ought to come be evaluated or even predicted by analyzing history? It is true that history repeats itself. Marx consolidated the theory of Dialectical Materialism which argued that analyzing history, there are natural progresses in which the world flows. His evidence was that history repeats itself. For example, repeated revolutions have caused the society to be more liberal; from the middle ages, the scientific revolution sparked the enlightenment, thus the enlightened despots; the French Revolution ended the monarchical forms of government and triggered the democratic forms of government; several revolutions during the 19th century and the Russian Revolution provoked communist governments. Similarly, the Totalitarian governments of the 20th century rose to power as a reaction to the failed status quo of Germany, Italy and Russia during the inter-war period like how Louis XVI consolidated individual power, abolishing the liberal parliament that his predecessor, Louis XV left while trying to pay the national debt caused when fighting against Britain. It is true that this historical connection can be made since in both cases, the individuals are dead and the event has terminated. However, even though history does repeat itself, humans cannot rely on history to tell them what will happen according to history. This is because individuals have the power to change history. Hitler coming to power might seem like the obvious step that has followed the economic depression. However, the German people in 1930s would have had similar discussions that are carried out nowadays because of Mr. Trump. Also, due to rambling totalitarian governments in Europe, the second world war did seem inevitable. However, many of the soldiers who were recruited in the war would have had a normal life like Asian men who are not aware of the growing tension around the Pacific Ocean. Thus, it is very unsafe to generalize a repetition in history as a consequential event that will happen.

Recently, media and the public show the trend of lightly comparing Hitler with Mr. Trump for being excessively nationalistic and racist. Although it is true that both individuals strongly believe and believed in nationalist values, it is highly risky to even compare Hitler with Mr. Trump for one exists only in history when the other has not created it yet. Thus, as historians, we cannot evaluate if Mr. Trump is totalitarian. Also, even if we were to evaluate history, we would have to keep in mind that nothing in history is inevitable or obvious, that all participants of history are individuals just like us.

Realpolitik and its roles in the unification of Germany and Italy

Berlin.jpgRealpolitik also known as pragmatic nationalism is a political theory primarily based on nationalism and focused on achieving a certain goal through practical means in which it appears to be conservative from time to time. Realpolitik, in the context of 19th century revolutions, has led the unification of Germany and Italy to success through incorporating as much self-interests of interest groups to maximize satisfaction amongst different political party.

Unlike many ideas and political theories created during the 19th century, Realpolitik embodies a very conservative view of politics, from time to time absolutist, which helped the unifiers easily control the execution of policies, creating policies consistent with only one idea. In The Speech to the Frankfurt Assembly, Droysen emphasizes how Germany should value “power” more than “[constitution]”. Also, the author strongly argues that German Unification will occur when a strong ruling house is settled. This statement, to begin with, is not liberal at all since the act of valuing power over constitution is ignoring the popular voice of the legislative body, belittling the right of the mass. Also, the establishment of powerful ruling class is the creating of aristocrats, thus returning the government system to the class based pre-modern government. Additionally, according to Field Marshal Helmuth von Motke, the Austro-Prussian War was fought not because of territorial or economic reasons, but because of “the establishment of power”. He also analyzes the situation of the Austro-Prussian War as Prussia filling in the vacuum of leadership of the German races caused due to the devastation of Austria with the crossing of the Alps. It is true that being conservative, monarchical and even totalitarian may not seem to have any direct effect on the unification. However, those are indeed connected. Looking at Bismarck and his domestic policies, every individual, no matter of their ideals, have a detailed plan which is more effective than when plotted as a group. This was proven by the Frankfurt Parliament in 1848 when they failed miserably to establish a new constitution as well as a government due to diverse interest groups and conflict between them. Thus, the reinvestment of power to an individual has allowed for faster and more efficient execution of policies which not only allowed the individual to carry out his plan undisturbed but also helped the nation as a whole to gain the momentum to carry out the unification.

One of the three main characteristics of Realpolitik is that it distanced people from ideal and abstract views and gave way to practical policies and decisions which increased the general happiness of the nation by corresponding to as much self-interest as it could. This created numerous supporters and eliminated the oppositions despite the fact that the majority of the population during the 19th century was liberal while the unification government was conservative. Firstly, Otto von Bismarck uses pragmatic policies regarding domestic and foreign affairs to unify Germany. Bismarck was a conservative prime minister of Prussia. Despite his conservative identity, he used any means to unify Germany. Bismarck, knowing that oppressing either of the two parties, liberal and conservative, would cause revolts, balanced the favor of the two parties. He established a government based on conservative values of monarchy and institution. However, at the same time, Bismarck granted freedom of press, coalition and even universal suffrage. These liberal policies compensated for conservative institution. Also, in terms of foreign affairs, Bismarck was extremely careful on how and with whom he should form allays. In the excerpt, Bismarck clearly says to “avoid wounding Austria too severely” for it will backstab Germany by allaying with France, which was originally neutral with Germany. Bismarck’s delicate manipulation of international relationship shows how he used decisions based on practical needs more than just ideals to deal with problems which led to the unification of Germany. These situations are also evident in Italy. In the Report of the meeting of Count Cavour with Emperor Napoleon III of France Napoleon has agreed to fight on behalf of Italy if the war. However, since France had a conservative government during the year 1858, Italy had to agree to conservative terms, that the war is of non-revolutionary cause, despite the original purpose of creating a unified liberal government. This allay has led Italy to unify the Norther regions. His choice to use conservative values in order to unify Italy shows practicality more so than ideals. Also, Speech of Vittorio Emanuele I shows pragmatism in politics to create an efficient government. Due to the allays created between France, Rome and Count Cavour, the Italian government created after the unification could not be as liberal as anticipated. However, the Italian people, since the revolution of 1848 were excited about the liberal government. Thus, Victor Emanuele I, the first king of the kingdom of Italy announces that “the opinion of civilized nations is favorable to [the government]; the just and liberal principle”. Also, Emanuele I appeals to the emotion of the audience by humbling himself and saying that “[he takes] pleasure in manifesting to the first Parliament of Italy the joy [he feels] in [his] heart as king and soldier”. One important fact about the document is that it is a speech given in public. These two quotes from the speech show that Emanuele I not only is trying to favor the expected audience of liberal intelligentsias but also appealing to the emotions of the Italian citizen in order to win their favor for the comparatively conservative government. These elaborate speeches of ensuring the public has not only secured the unification but also halted future revolts against the government. The use of white lie as well as emotion is a direct example of maximizing satisfaction by using practical method of establishing government rather than an ideal method.

Also, Pragmatic Nationalism, as its name suggests, contained nationalistic characteristics which motivated the individuals to unite the nation in the first place as well as helped the initiators of unification to justify their conservative actions to the liberal public. Firstly, The Program of Count Cavour describes nationalism as the necessary step in human progress in which one grows into a more moral and intelligent being. Thus, according to the author, national identity is required to create a truly civilized nation. The author takes a step further and analyzes Italy. He mentions that “Nationalism has [kept] all parts of Italy united despite the differences that distinguish them.” (Cavour, 1846). This shows that he had faith in the nationalism of Italian people which motivated him to create a united Italy. Analyzing the date that this document was recorded, the document was made before the revolutions of 1848. This means that the author has not witness of the failed yet the first attempt on the Italian unification. This shows that even before several attempts on unifying Italy, the author was determined to creating a united Italian state. Also The Imperial Proclamation illustrates the role of nationalism within the German context. The article refers to the word “fatherland” several times. In German, “fatherland” translates to Vaterland, another name for Germany. This shows that the idea of nation represented the parent like figure of the individual participants. This provokes brotherhood within the nation, thus nationalism. Analyzing the date of the document, the document is created on the day of the proclamation of the German Unification. Also, this document is the Imperial Proclamation, which is the equivalent of the declaration of independence for America written at the moment of establishing the government. Thus, whatever is written on the document can be regarded as the founding ideas of the government. This shows that the idea of nationalism not only has been prevalent throughout the process of unification but also has resulted in a governmental system based on nationalism.

To conclude, Realpolitik has influenced Germany and Italy in unifying itself. Considering the fact that Realpolitik consists of pragmatic measures and nationalism, manipulating with situations to favor oneself practically as well as using nationalism has allowed Bismarck and Cavour to maximize satisfaction amongst the interest groups so that there is a point of compensation in which an individual based government can quickly and efficiently rule over the mass without revolts.

European Homefront During the First World War

World War 1, also known as the Great War has brought many devastation across Europe. One of the major reasons that differentiated the World War 1 from previous wars is that the Great War was the first Total Warfare. Total Warfare means that every part of the nation contributes to the war by either actually fighting or producing military goods. Thus, homefronts were created in which civilians took part in the war as well. European civilians during the time of war were first filled with enthusiasm and excitement about the war which soon were bombarded with the reality of war, changing to reactionary movements against the war, for a peaceful nation.

When the war broke out, European civilians, especially nationalists, thought that by participating in a war, a nation could strengthen it power; they supported and cheered for the new war. Bertrand Russell’s autobiography states that “the day war was declared… men and women were delighted at the prospect of war”. This shows that indeed, many people generalized as “average men and women” cheered at the declaration of the World War. Stefan Zweig’s autobiography too states that people cheered for the war, but in more excited tone. Zweig states that “All differences of class, rank, and language were flooded over at that moment by the rushing feeling of fraternity”. This shows that simultaneously in Britain, Austria and presumably other European countries, the idea of nationalism toward its own country burst into the streets which resulted in open celebration of the war. Additional document which could deliver a personal idea and pride for the country in participating in the war would strengthen the argument. The two documents mentioned above are observations made by two different individuals in two distinct nations. However, they both rather give an objective view on the cheering crowd than their opinions about the war itself. To expand the claim about the relationship between the civilian perspective of the war and nationalism, a personal idea regarding the perspectives of the war prior to its intensification can be used.

However, as the war continued for unexpectedly long time with much more devastation than anticipated, formally cheerful crowd disappeared to thin air. One limitations that Zweig and Russell’s autobiography have is that it only illustrates the people’s support for war only at the beginning of it. Very different from the former documents them, Rosa Luxemburg describes that “the scene has changed fundamentally”. In contrast with the “cheering crowds” and the “rushing feeling of fraternity”, Luxemburg describes that the war has indeed changed “cities [into] ruins; villages [into] cemeteries; countries [into] deserts…” She continues to say that “there are food riots in Venice, in Lisbon… plague in Russia”. These devastating descriptions of the war contrasts the formerly described scenes of pride, showing the disastrous reality that the Europeans civilians had to live during the times of War. Additionally, given that Luxemburg is a woman Socialist who wrote a book called ‘The War and the Workers” during the period of war shows that there may have been similar socialists who thought that the continuation of war was absurd and that indeed acted in defense of their beliefs. The letter sent from the governor of the department of the Isere to the minister of the interior of France formally lists out the grievances and complaints that the peasants of the following district had with war. The letter reads that the workers “are upset about the duration of the struggle, impatient with the increasing cost of living”. The document being a letter by a governmental official to another governmental official shows that the grievances and the complaints made by the peasants were officially and formally formulated. This shows that the tragic situation that the peasants are in is not lighthearted but indeed serious. These two key devastations in Europe is well illustrated by Anna Eisenmenger, a typical Austrian middle class woman, in her Diary. She describes that “we house wives have… grown accustomed to standing in ques… to being obliged to go home with empty hands and still emptier stomachs”. This quote shows that a typical house wife during the World War 1 waited in line to presumably get a ration or buy daily groceries. However, the starving does not end. Eisenmenger continues to describe that “it happens more and more frequently that… tired women who have been waiting for hours collapses from exhaustion”. To the civilians and to women in specific, the everlasting war has brought eternal starving and discomfort which eventually ended in fainting and probably even death. These descriptions are generalized by the author to the whole population of women in Austria. This perspective is significant since generalizing the situation to a bigger population conveys that most of the people in Austria during that period of time went through the similar tragedy in their lives. To enhance the argument regarding the European devastation in the homefront, specific statistical data may be used. A factual statistical data that encompasses the economic losses as well civilian casualties will solidify the argument, not relying entirely on subjective observations.

The devastation that civilians had to suffer urged numerous people to react accordingly to the global war. Returning back to the Letter from the governor of the department of Isere, the governor mentions that these devastations led to peasants “increasingly taken in by the propagandists of the united Social Party” to react against the war-supporting governments. Vladimir Lenin, the communist Leader wrote in his “The Call to Power” that “the government is tottering” due to the World War 1 and that the only way of “salvation” is through the communist revolution. This shows that radical political interest groups such as the communist party has turned their backs from the war-supporting governments toward peaceful communist government. In the context of devastation in European homefront, the peasants who also opposed war would have easily joined the communist party to revolt against the government. The massive joining of the peasants through individual interest would have increased the magnitude of the revolution. Him being the leader of the Russian Revolution and the communist society in general, his anti-World-War ideas would have been imposed on other numerous communists in and out Russia. This shows that the anti-World-War ideals did not only reside within Russia but also with other countries where communist parties did exist. In addition, the plots of the violent revolution that Lenin dreamt of is illustrated briefly in the meeting of the Russian tsar’s Council of Ministers in 1915. The Council of Ministers say that the past revolution in Moscow of 1915 “ended in bloodshed” where several gun shots at the protestors ended up with several casualties. However, the Ministers also say that the firing was necessary. This shows that the protestors too would have shown violence in their process of demonstrating. Also, the second route in which the revolutionaries revolted was by getting excited by “the speeches in the Duma… newspaper stories… and rumors of disorder in the rear”: media. This shows that the revolution if happens will include both violence and media. However, violent protest and revolutions were not the sole reaction to the homefront devastation. The Food Production Department poster created around 1918 urges the customers to buy canned food rather than “perishable produce” for the perishable produce will rot and be wasted in some point in time. The inventions that account for the discomforts that the civilians back in the homefront had to endure show that suppliers and consumers, the market, have reacted to create different demands and supplies and live within the discomfort rather than to change reality. To enrich the argument regarding the non-violent means of reaction to the devastation at homefront, several diaries like accounts of civilians in the homefront who have changed their lifestyle due to the war can be used to model the civilians’ reaction towards the Great War.

To conclude, civilians of the European homefront during the First World War were first filled with enthusiasm and excitement about the war and its benefits in terms of nationalism. However, when they realized the devastation that the war can bring, the civilians realized the reality of the war. This motivated the civilians to react to the war, both violently and non-violently.

The Beginning of the Cold War: Similarities and Differences Between Socialism and Liberalism in the Nineteenth-Century Europe

Since the Second World War, the world is divided into two: the capitalist nations and the communist nations. Communism being rooted to socialism, the conflict started in the nineteenth century Europe. Back then, capitalism, in the name of liberalism, was developing. Yet, some liberalists who found mistakes in capitalistic model of the society formulated Utopian Socialism. They both were similar that they valued equality, yet were different that liberalism valued economic liberty which led to poor condition of working when socialism emphasized equality of all social members which improved the working condition of the laborers.

It is true that both wanted equality of people. Liberalism of the nineteenth-century originated from enlightenment ideals, majorly summarized to equality and liberty. Since the beginning of French Revolution, liberalists, who were majorly consisted of bourgeoisies, advocated for expanded suffrage. The cahier de doléances written during the French Revolution shows that one of the most frequently appearing concerns about the government was equal political representation and fair voting system in the General Estate. Furthermore, the “Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen” signed during the French Revolution shows the ideas of the growing liberalism. The declaration states that all “men are born and remain free and equal in rights” and that “social distinctions can be founded only on the common good”. This declaration becomes the foundation of all classical liberalism ideals. Economic liberalists such as David Ricardo and Thomas Malthus do not distinguish men according to their class but only according to their personal interest. Also, political liberalists who believed in utilitarianism such as Jeremy Bentham believed that maximum happiness for the maximum number should be achieved. However, this statement also assumes the fact that all human beings are equal thus their happiness is valued equally. Similarly, the socialists during the nineteenth-century supported equality between all human being. The nineteenth century socialists, referred to as Utopian Socialists by later philosophers, dreamt of small societies in which all members of the community were valued equally (of course according to the natural law) by sharing the workload and profit of the community amongst the members equally. Examples of the Utopian Socialist communities are Phalansteries created by Charles Fourier and New Lanark created by Robert Owen. Charles Fourier created the Phalansteries in hope to create ideal societies in which individuals work equally for a common goal and earn equally. Also, New Lanark aimed to decreasing the economic gap between the poorly treated factory workers and the rich capitalists. The workers in New Lanark were paid more by the capitalists so that the general workers’ living condition got more equal to the managers’ compared to other factories around Europe. These examples show how Utopian socialists valued equality similar to how the liberalists of the nineteenth century did, if not more. As discussed above, this similarity accounts for the origin of the two ideas. Both liberalism and socialism originated from the ideals created during the French Revolution which emphasized the importance of liberty, equality, and fraternity in society. Thus, both ideas supported equality of all people.

Although liberalists and socialists aimed at general equality, their focus diverged on to what extent they expanded equality. Liberalists did value equality like how socialists did. However, they interpreted equality as non-interruption of social order to artificially create social difference unlike socialists who defined equality as state in which all human beings are held at equal value: equal working and equal earning. Adam Smith and Jeremy Bentham formulated the idea of Laissez-Faire and Utilitarianism which founded the nineteenth century liberalism which emphasized economic liberalism and individual self-interest. David Ricardo, a classical liberalism philosopher, was deeply influenced by Smith’s idea written in the Wealth of Nations. He then wrote books regarding economic phenomenon shown in nineteenth century Europe. Encompassing all economic situations, an assumption and a hypothesis that Ricardo and Smith make is that people will and should maximize self-interest to maximize profit. This sometimes may be presented unequal between different social groups, for example, Ricardo’s theory on wages says that the wage of any worker will tend toward the minimum wage that the worker can receive. Thus, the investors will maximize their interest while the laborers will receive just the right amount of money to survive, eventually increasing the gap between economic social classes. This shows how liberalists did believe in equality under law, yet advocated for inequality through fulfilling individual interests. Unlike liberalism, Utopian Socialists believed otherwise. They criticized capitalism for pursuing nothing but self-interest. Charles Fourier in his On Economic Liberalism writes that it is ridiculous that merchants can throw away tons of grain during the times of great famine just to increase grain price and maximize profit. He continues to say that thus, “commercial liberty should be subject to restrictions consistent with the needs of society as a whole” (Fourier). This shows that Fourier believed that general welfare should be above individual interest. Consistent to his argument, Fourier established phalansteries where community members worked for the common welfare rather than individual profit. Fourier’s idea shows that Utopian Socialists criticized liberalists’ emphasis on individual interest while highlighting the importance of general wellbeing of the society. The difference exists because Utopian Socialism came into being when philosophers tried to tackle problems of liberalism. Like Malthus, some inteligencias saw inequality between the poor and the rich. This led idealists like Fourier and Owen to construct the Utopian Socialism. Thus, the difference between liberalism and Utopian Socialism was inevitable.

Following the said difference, liberalism and socialism differed in ways they viewed workers. As discussed above, liberalists believed in maximizing individual self-interest. Yet, since the bourgeoisies who controlled the capital and the land owning aristocrats were the only social groups who could control their self-interest by either increasing or decreasing the profit, the laborers were not able to intervene in determining their profit. According to Ricardo, the wage of the laborer will tend toward the minimum amount of money that the worker can survive with and that is the Iron Law of wages. This is due to the assumption that most liberalists made: all economic participants will maximize their profit if they can. Since the bourgeoisies will maximize their profit, the expenditure on laborer will decrease toward the minimum amount they can receive. Thus, naturally, the living condition of the workers fell to a state in which laborers were forced to live in congested slums with basic clothing. However, unlike liberalists who maltreated their workers, Utopian Socialists provided their workers with comparatively higher standard of living. Robert Owen, developing his industry in New Lanark, gave workers higher wages. This was clearly against the assumptions of the liberalists while aligning with socialism since the capital-controlling bourgeoisie sacrificed his profit for the general welfare. The highly paid workers’ standard of living rose and the total revenue increased as well. With the increased production, workers’ wage increased more. This cycle demonstrates the Utopian Socialists’ belief in improving the working condition of the laborer. These differences occurred due to their difference in the emphasized value. Since liberalists believed that individual interests should be valued more, the working condition of the laborers will naturally fall in the process of maximizing the profit of the higher class when socialists believed that individual interest should be sacrificed for equality and general social welfare in which the laborer’s living condition will be enhanced.

To conclude, liberalism and socialism during the nineteenth century showed very different traits of belief despite their common root in the ideals of the French Revolution. These two major ideas of the nineteenth century Europe later grows to be the two dominant ideas of the world. Due to their ideological difference, physical and mental wars occur between many countries where many people die. The two ideologies, liberalism and socialism, are clearly different in terms of what they emphasis and how they manage. However, it is important to remember that they both aim for the same goal, equal society.

Islamization of South East Asia, Its Course, Problems and Effects

Islamization of South East Asia, Its Course, Problems and Effects

Southeast Asia today is a major part of Islam in today’s world. However it has not been very old since Islam entered the South Eastern Asia. This Islamic entrance to the South Eastern Asian countries happened majorly through trade because of a lot of conditions such as geographical factors and cultural factors. During the course of conversion, there were many conflicts and problems that Islam faced however they later were successful at influencing South East Asia even until today.

Islamic ideas and religion spread throughout South East Asia majorly through trade. First, looking at Map 10, Southeast Asia; Conversion to Islam, the fact that among the South East Asian regions, Islamic conversion spread from north western islands to the eastern island can be observed. This shows how the wind of Islamic ideas blew from the north western regions of India and the Arabian Peninsula inwards to South East Asia. This map also shows how the conversion happened throughout majorly in the coastal regions of the islands. This shows how most of Islamic interactions happen among the coastal regions compared to inland regions of islands. To add on, map 10 also shows how Islam didn’t spread all the way past the western coast of Irian Java of Indonesia before 1800. This shows how interaction of Islam and South East Asia happen very gradually over a time period of 300 years. However, this map also has lots of limitations too. For example, this map has a time frame of 300 years. This results to vague picture of spreading of Islam. Thus specific routes on how Islam spread and developed in South East Asia would be restricted. To reduce this limitation, additional document of map illustrating specific routes of Islamic spread might be used. Along with map 10, map 17, Trade Links of Melaka, ca. 1500 shows how Melaka, a city in the Malaysian Peninsula has actively traded with both Islamic countries and other parts of South Eastern Asia. Connecting this map to map 10, map 10 shows how Melaka and its near regions were comparatively converted earlier than other parts of South East Asia. To add on, Melaka traded more actively with Gujarat and traders via Gujarat coming from Islamic Empires in the Middle East and East Africa. These are direct evidences of how Islam spread in the South East Asia through trade as it is shown that; Melaka an active city of trade became one of the first and the most important city in the South East Asia at spreading Islamic religion. However, map 17 does not specify about how much of those items were traded among thus not being able to illustrate the exact picture of how deeply Melaka and other countries interacted. To reduce these limitations, additional document of statistical report of traded commodities and its amount might be used. Contradicting the previous statement, looking at the reading The Conversion of Melaka, it is clearly shown that Islamic missionaries and preachers traveling around to spread Islam did exist. However, even these missionaries were able to exist because of the trade routes that traders have made earlier and the fact that Islamic traders interacted with the locals before the missionaries have made them possible to preach and teach the Islamic believes. So, of course there were lots of missionaries traveling only for religious purposes. However these missionaries too were a result of interaction that earlier Islamic traders have made.

For Islam to spread in South East Asia, there were lots of unique characteristics that it had for Islam to spread this way such as geographical factors and cultural unity. First, as it is shown in Map 14, Land & Sea Elevation of Indo-Malay Region, there are significantly large areas of shallow seas. To add on, shallow seas make sailing to be easy because it makes the sailors more efficient and easy to navigate through them and the fact that the sea is shallow says that there are less storms or waves. This shows how shallow seas that were easy to sail made trade and interactions between these islands more easy thus effecting the spread of Islam through it. To expand and in connection to map 10, the close islands of Borneo and Java were not converted until the 16th century. However, further islands of Mindanao and Irian Java converted much faster than the previous islands in terms of time that Islam took to spread. To add on, the Australian regions further away in the Arafura Sea didn’t convert even after the 19th century. The most reasonable explanation for this irregular conversion might be that the Java Sea between Malaysia and Sumatra, and Borneo and Java is deeper than its surrounding seas thus slowing down sea interactions. However Flores Sea and Banda Sea further away in the east is shallower compared to Java Sea thus speeding up the spread. Not only sea elevation affect conversion but land elevation also affected the conversion too. In map 14, it is shown that inner land of Borneo island and Sulawesi is covered in high lands. Connecting this to map 10, lands that are highly elevated are not converted as easily as the lands of low elevation. This shows how high lands decreased the interaction between the Islamic traders and the locals. Cultural unity also affected the spread of Islam. Map 12, Linguistic Families and Preponderant Groups of Southeast Asia, shows a wide range of South East Asia to have Austronesian language root. The fact that a group belongs to the same linguistic family also says that they share a similar culture and habit. Thus, the major part of South East Asia shares a comparatively strong unity through cultural similarity. Connecting this to map 10, major part of Islamic converts in South East Asia belongs to the Austronesian linguistic family thus sharing a strong bond. This allows Islamic traders and missionaries to easily convert other areas of South East Asia after the primary conversion of Melaka and its neighboring regions. To add on, the northern part of South East Asia such as Thailand and Tibeto Burman regions spoke languages of very different root thus sharing different cultures and believes. The fact that they didn’t share the culture made the Islamic traders difficult to convert them compared to the rest of South East Asia.

Even though Islamization in South East Asia seemed to be easy, they faced lots of conflicts and troubles along their conversion. Mentioned in the first reading, Introduction to Southeast Asia: History, Geography, and Livelihood, there was “…a “race” to gain followers…” To add on, the fact that “The Spanish pushed back Muslim from the northern Philippines” shows that there were a lot of religious conflicts in South East Asia. Furthermore, if there is a religious conflict between two religions not tolerant of each other, the conflict may expand to military and political conflicts as well. Thus, Christianity, a rapidly growing religion, has somewhat interrupted Islam from spreading in South East Asia. In addition, the first reading on introduction to Southeast Asia is an article to give general information on the spread of Islam. However, since the focus of this document too is on Islamization, the document would reduce information on conflict that they had with other religions. This show how religious conflict between Christianity and Islam would have been more serious than said in the reading. To add on, as shown in the last reading, The Conversion of Melaka, the officials tried to persuade the king of Melaka that the new religion is “devil plaguing [him]”. This shows how people at that time were not very tolerant about other religion. Furthermore, this document extracted from Ten Conversion Myths from Indonesia is a myth from an Islamic country about the conversion of Islam. This source has to be biased towards the Islamic spread. Thus, the opposition against Islam would have been reduced compared to reality. This shows how resistances of conservatives in South Eastern Asian countries have been strong against Islam, causing conflicts with between them. To add on, as shown in Map 3, there were diverse routes on how Islam got spread through South East Asia. Before South East Asia was converted, most of the important ports in South Asia, Arabian Peninsula and Eastern Africa were converted into Islam. In addition, as Islam spread through other parts of the world, Islamic ideas started to vary from Arabian Islam, Indian Islam and Chinese Islam.  These varieties of Islamic believes then joint in South East Asia through trade. Thus, in South East Asia, they must have faced religious diversity among themselves. This would lessen the unity among Islamic societies in South East Asia thus creating conflicts among themselves.

Even though there were lots of problems in Islamization of South East Asia, it left a long reputation and is now a big part of religious history. As shown in map 15, Political Map of Indo-Malay Region, most of important cities in South East Asia even till today lies on the coastal areas. To add on, cities mentioned on the map such as Melaka and Jakarta was and still is the center of Islam in South East Asia. Further connecting this to map 10, most of the areas of primary conversion and even later conversion still carries out to be major part of South East Asia. This shows how Islam was an important factor shaping the region and how that importance is still carried out to be the center of Islam even till today. To support this argument of Islamic reputation, additional documents of artwork that carries both Islamic and South Eastern Asian characteristics may be used.

To conclude, Islam spread throughout South East Asia by majorly trade. For this to be possible, a lot of natural and artificial conditions were required such as geographical factors and linguistic factors. However, during its spread, there were conflicts both internally and externally between different religions, between countries and regions and within Islam itself. Even though it had lots of problems, Islam still remains to be a major part of South East Asian culture and will still carry out to play a major role at shaping South East Asia.

Social and Economic changes and continuities in Europe between 600 and 1750

Social and Economic changes and continuities in Europe between 600 and 1750

Europe is a continental organization whose power reaches out very far. It influences the world trade through its early developments in economy and commerce. However, Europe has been influential to the world economy and trade only since the 1400s which is not very long compared to Islamic who solidified their place in global economy by the 600s. Thus, in order to know the traits of world economy now, it is inevitable to study the historical traits of Europe’s both social and economic aspects during 600 CE to 1750 CE

Throughout the post classical period and the early modern period, Western Europe Catholic Church’s economy; and the gender roles, social participation and the treatment of women changed slowly for the worse; however, desire for the deserved equal rights of the lower working class people did continue.

Catholic Church, as one of the most influential organization that carried enormous power in the Western Europe during the period, has experienced shifting of their economical power to individuals during the period of 600 CE to 1750 CE. In 1054 CE the Roman Catholic Church first separated from the Eastern Orthodox Church to take control over the western half of Europe. However after the collapse of the Byzantine Empire and the Orthodox Church, Catholic Church became the only solid organization with popular religious correlation. Thus, the church carried high political values. This political importance became the key that the church was able to gain such economical power. During the medieval period, German princes ardent for political power donated lands and money to the church associations. To add on, as the church moved towards being capitalistic, monasteries and nunneries started to act as the church’s economical branch. The monasteries with granted lands and estates farmed both crops and raised animal. They also developed agricultural techniques that helped productivity to increase. By the 13th century, monasteries grew as a major economical candidate not only because of its enormous landholdings but also because it played an important role in the medieval wool trade as the middleman. To add on, during the period from 11th century to 13th century, the church promoted crusades to conquer Jerusalem from the Muslims. At first the church gained economical power through the lands and booties conquered from the Muslims. However, after the last crusade state in the Middle East fell back to the Muslim’s hands, church has lost a great deal of money in promoting the failed crusades. From that point onwards, the church started to lose its economical superiority. By the end of 15th century, church’s power became very corrupt that they promoted lavish building projects such as the rebuilding of St. Peter Basilica. Along with the shortage that the church felt right after the failure of crusades, these building projects made the church desperate for money. This fact is clearly shown through the abusive selling of indulgences to pay off the expenses spent during the mid 15th century. Furthermore, the protestant reformation that followed the selling of indulgences threatened the Catholic Church even more. Soon after the separation of protestant church from the Catholic Church, German princes who wanted to be independent from the tight organization of the church followed the protestant church. This gave German princes a chance to take away monastery lands. Hence this process directly led to the loss of church. The enlightenment movement that happened at the late early modern period finally separated the church authorities and the political powers that it had. This finally ended the economical prosperity that the Catholic Church enjoyed by strictly cutting down possibilities that the church could have had of earning money through political powers.

The gender roles, social participation of women and treatments toward women has changed for the worse since the medieval period. During the medieval period, all of Europe’s social and economical structure was based on agricultural life of the peasants. Due to this factor, women were allowed to take part in agricultural activities that does require physical strength but is very much capable of being completed by women as well. Furthermore, women were able to take greater part in local commerce through creating craft guilds. In addition, the Catholic nunneries granted women social power to some extent. The monastic groups gave chance to women to take part in economy more intensively through church-run manufacturing production. They were also able to receive education from the nunneries to the extent where they were able to create literary pieces of work collectively. To add on, nunneries provided women with alternatives to marriage. To add on, biblical significance of female character such as Mary gave more attention to women than before. Furthermore, the religious emphasis on Christian equality of all souls gave women more equal chances even in religious services where women became less segregated from men. However as the early modern period approached, the society changed from being an agriculture based society to mercantile society. This first reduced the importance of women as a part of economical society because jobs that woman could do in it were too minor to be done. This eventually eliminated the possibility for women to get jobs. The protestant reformation played a big role in determining the women’s social value in the early modern period. The power gaining protestant churches strongly believed in witch-hunting. The witch-hunting trials and executions spread across Europe like wildfire and has killed thousands of women regardless of what their true identity was. Furthermore, theological analyses on women were made during the enlightenment movement which too degraded them. The analogy was given that women were no more than tools of reproduction and production. This shows how women’s values are deteriorated.

Even though from 600CE to 1750CE major parts of Europe changed, the rebellion created by the combination of desire to ascend in the social hierarchy and popular theologies to reason was kept continuous. During the medieval period, there are reported cases of serfs, who were free men tied to landowners because he has no money to be independent, escaping and running away from their landlords to create communities of homeless serfs. Along with this, theologians such as Peter Abelard or Thomas Aquinas suggested people to reason with information and have skeptic views than to just take in information as they are. They have also mentioned the necessities of logical thought process which later directly links to rebellion for natural rights. In global historical context, soon after the transition to the early modern period, the Columbian Exchange took place all around the world for several years. There were new ideas that traveled through sea and as well as ideas slaves from Africa traveled too. This too gave the rebellion strength to be continued. First, because of Columbian exchange, the economical and social gap between the poor and the rich became very distinct. This created new social classes such as the proletariats, the working class without access to prosperity. To add on, the exposure to the social classes below the existing low classes should have given the peasants the feeling of deserving more privileges than the slave classes. These two major global events pushed peasant uprisings to continue even as it went in to a new era. Furthermore, with the enlightenment movement, people were able to ask for what in specific they needed. The natural rights that John Locke argued were the right to life, right to liberty, and right to property. Spread of these basic rights gave peasants foundation for their protest to base on.

To conclude, Europe indeed has faced lots of changes as well as continuities. The declining status of economy of the Catholic Church during the 600CE to 1750CE period has determined the government that now stands independent from religion; the change of gender roles and social participation of women has laid its foundation on the equal society that Europe now has; and finally the continuously rebellious lower classes and criticisms had created a Europe with developed philosophy and strong skilled work force. All together, the period from 600CE to 1750CE is a period of transition when major events happened not just for the sake of happening but it occurred to change and shape world economy and society that exists now.

Impact of Enlightenment Thoughts on the Atlantic Revolution – DBQ

Impact of Enlightenment Thoughts on the Atlantic Revolution

The Enlightenment ideals produced during the period from the 18th century to the 19th century affected the people, usually of lower class, in devastating conditions in order to create numerous reforms and revolutions. However, due to these reforms, conservative ideas started to appear to check on the social and political transformations.

Analyzing the status of the Atlantic countries before the revolution it is clear that there were not much traits of ideas similar to the thought processes produced during the enlightenment. Document 2 explains the absence of enlightenment ideas before the Atlantic revolution by clearly showing that the monarch of the state, Louis the XVI, both restricts the right of people to express and say in public and also justifies himself, the individual, to be the absolute power that decides the rights and the wrongs. To add on, he shows numerous traits of absolutism oppressing and restricting the rights of the peasant class by extensively claiming the title of guarantor of respective rights. These show how enlightenment ideas such as the individual natural rights are not present. Considering the document’s point of view, this document was written in governmental power’s point of view after several riots and uprisings. However, considering the time period that this document was written, it shows that even though there were uprisings, the prior ones lacked in its philosophy thus not carrying enough significance to the governmental power that the monarch thought it would be fine to oppress people not compensate with them of what they needed. This led to future uprisings which did support their causes through ideas that appeared during the enlightenment movement, contributing directly to the collapse of royal authorities. Furthermore, document 4 shows that slaves were oppressed in their rights more extensively. Considering article 2, it is clear that the slave’s right to freedom of religion has been oppressed. To add on, the amount of food to be given to slave as their weekly ration specified in article 22 is insufficient for a grown up human being to survive for a week considering the hard labor they have to complete in order to eat them. Furthermore, article 59 also shows how only free men were allowed to enjoy not only the fruits of labor but also the natural rights and additional benefits granted by the government. To consider the document’s view point, this document is a law code written and maintained by the central government in France, but applied in Saint Domingue, across the Atlantic Ocean. To add on, because of the fact that both legislative and executive branch are very far from where it is actually needed, chances of this law code perverting to favor the minority of higher social and economic status, eventually degrading the life of the slaves were very likely. Along with the documents mentioned above, the Stamp Act passed by the British Parliament on its Colonies in North America will demonstrate the social and political situation of the nations before its revolution through ideas of enlightenment in a different dimension from the previous documents. Stamp Act shows how British Colonies in America, as the leaders of Atlantic Revolution came into being through describing the tense and restricted trade and economic situation they were in before fighting for their liberty. This restriction eventually triggered the revolution to happen. To add on, similar to document 4, the Stamp Act being a legal document passed by the British Parliament, across the Atlantic Ocean, shows how these restrictions too might have been heavier than what it is mentioned. These factors emphasize the terrible condition they were in before using Enlightenment thoughts to revolutionize the society. Through the documents mentioned above, it is clearly shown that situation before the revolution was very unfavorable to the majority who were oppressed by the minority monopolizing wealth and power. To add on, the ideas produced during the enlightenment such as the idea of natural rights or popular sovereignty is clearly not very well spread throughout the Atlantic regions.

As the enlightenment ideas spread, the unprivileged majorities took up different forms of revolution in order to claim their basic rights, life and liberty. Document 1 directly shows people’s expression of their pursuit of those rights. Document 1 clearly states that people do deserve rights from their birth and the purpose of the government is to protect them. The document not only states but also emphasizes the fact that the rights are extremely individualistic and is given from nature. To add on, document 1 expands to say that it is the people’s right and also their duty to abolish the government that has failed to reinforce the rights and also to institute a new government that will support those rights for the people. These ideas supposed in the document show great traits of enlightenment ideas such as natural rights. This document being a legal document of declaration, the perspective of this document shows how enlightenment ideas were not only ideals pursued by people informally but also philosophies that made the foundation of a nation. Furthermore, these ideas also took forms of violent revolts. Document 7 clearly states that there will be a violent revolt and the revolt will not stop unless the people are satisfied. To add on, it also states that the cause of this violent reform is for the liberty of the people. This does show how the enlightenment ideals such as right to liberty impact the people in more extreme ways. Considering the document’s perspective, the fact that document is presumed to be written by or if not, influenced by the leader of the slave revolt, Toussaint L’ Ouverture, emphasizes the desire for liberty in the first person’s shoe and also suggests that this document, with much influence, would have motivated several other revolts contributing to the spread and further impact of enlightenment ideas. To further develop the impact, the enlightenment ideas started to form different forms of government from violent revolts. Document 10 states that people under oppression will continue to fight for their liberty even in violent terms. However, the conclusion of the document states that the fighting should not end just as a revolt but should finish as a formation of a new government. To add on, even though he emphasizes the role of final government to control the revolution he does not specify its type; except for the fact that it has to be liberal, thus opening its format so that the formation of it is a very fast process. This shows how enlightenment ideas of liberty could be pursued with any type of government instituted by the people. Analyzing the perspective of this document, Simon Boulivar as the leader of the revolt and the head of revolution could have easily overtaken the government like Robespierre of France. However, his continuous pursuit of common goal of the nation shows how enlightenment ideals expanded to create nationalistic ideas in order to pose a different dimension of national development. Through the documents mentioned above, it is clear that enlightenment thoughts not only influenced people to revolt against the existing power to claim their basic rights but also developed those thoughts into action and finally into ideas such as nationalism that played an important role in thrusting the development into its next step.

Not only did people pursue basic rights but after liberty was stabilized, people started to claim rights to benefit themselves and to raise their quality of life. Document 3 is a direct example of pursuit of expanded rights. It not only demands for basic rights such as liberty and resistance to oppression also present in earlier documents but also contains rights to property, security and most importantly, right to exercise authority as the source of sovereignty. To analyze the document’s perspective in a bigger historical context, document 3 also shows the process in which ideal rights in previous documents come to reality. In document 1, it has been clearly stated that it is the right of the people to abolish the government if it fails to protect the individual’s rights. However, Declaration of Independence was written in response to the oppressive colonial government, thus it can be seen that the right to abolishment of government wasn’t in full activation. Document 3, on the other hand, was declared in response to oppressive French Government. This shows that because the nation was free of external oppression, unlike the examples discussed above, people were able to declare rights on their own government and ask for more rights. To add on, The Constitution of these United States of America of 1787 along with The Mexican Constitution of 1824 will further support the argument by demonstrating other ways in which different parts of the Atlantic Ocean advance their life style through acquiring additional rights. The Constitution of these United States of America of 1787 shows how people of the United States were guaranteed luxuries such as freedom of press, right to freely assemble for various purposes, and finally more active participation in politics. Furthermore, it can be observed that even slaves did have a voice in government too. Analyzing its point of view, since the document is a legal law code, it can be easily drawn out that the government too started to get influenced by enlightenment ideas such as popular sovereignty thus trying to work in favor of the citizen. To add on, The Mexican Constitution of 1824 clearly shows popular enlightenment ideas regarding politics such as division of government. To expand on previous rights, the document also guarantees higher quality education to first develop even more merit based system of government and second to develop scientific technologies in order to increase efficiency and grow more competitive to other European countries economically and technically. Similar to the Constitution of the United States of America of 1787, this document too is a legal law code showing greater care that the central government imposes on the people in order to earn their favor in the system of popular sovereignty. Through the documents mentioned above, it is clearly shown that people participating and leading the Atlantic Revolution not only borrows the enlightenment theories but also uses them and combines them with their situations to ask the central power for more luxury that they could enjoy.

However, as enlightenment ideals influenced people to rise and make changes for a better cause, many people were also influenced in another way. People who opposed the revolutionary idea formed the conservative party to suppress the revolution and try to return to monarchal structure. Document 5 explains one way in which conservatism rose. The document says that even though colonies are a part of the Empire and are encouraged to not only enjoy their rights but also the benefits of the Empire, the colonists were not granted any rights specified in the “Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen” for they are not included in the constitution. To add on, it assures that the slave trade will remain active and whoever rises against the government or the higher classed colonists will be considered traitor, further oppressing them of their enlightenment ideals of freedom. To analyze the document further, this document was written by the French Government as soon as Mulattoes in their colony started to develop arguments to claim right and eventually abolish the existing government for a new one. This shows how conservatism was used as a tool to control the growing revolutions. To add on, Document 6 shows how the government will remain as it is, continuing to use slaves, and will not grant any rights to the slaves showing traits of conservative ideas. Analyzing the document’s point of view, the fact that this document was created right after the execution of the mulatto leader who tried to claim more rights for his own race shows that even after the influence of enlightenment ideas, the government will not grant rights to anybody stopping the revolution to its halt. Furthermore, document 8 shows how the US president Thomas Jefferson tried to stop Haitian revolution from negatively influencing the people of the United States. To add on, this shows that as a governor of a neighboring country of a revolutionizing country, it would have been an inevitable decision to try and ban the revolution from happening in order to keep order in your own country. Thus, to these leaders, enlightenment ideas would have been a big threat thus trying to oppose it. Similar to document 8, document 9 shows how slave owners tried to stop the spreading of the thoughts of rebellion and furthermore, enlightenment ideas. To add on, this document also shows the pressure that revolution has imposed not only to the leader ruling the rebellious regions but also to the leaders of neighboring regions. These two documents show how political or economic minorities ruling the subjects of potential rebellion would have turned their heads towards conservatism than the enlightenment. However, since this turn away from the enlightenment is caused by major revolutions, it can be easily said that even the increase of conservatism is the aftermath of the spread of enlightenment thoughts.

To conclude, the enlightenment ideas were a great influence on the Atlantic society that originally was portrayed to be monarchal and very hierarchal. However, those newly evolving theories not only created new nations liberating from other powers but it also gave chance for numerous people to earn rights and raise their quality of life. However, as more people tried to pursue the ideals, the minorities in control of power started to oppose the enlightenment ideas eventually creating an everlasting conflict between the conservatives and the liberals.

Causes of the Protestant Reformation DBQ – Outline

DBQ Outline

Thesis: The Protestant Reformation did not have a specific beginning nor an end. However, it began due to majorly three reasons being, the theological and doctrinal fallacies that the Catholic Church had with the constant change of popes and canon laws, the corruption that kept going on throughout the time period and the reformer’s criticisms on it, and finally development in popular art that was used to spread the ideas to a wider audience.

 

Paragraph 1 Theological fallacy

Topic Sentence: The main reason behind why theologians not only Martin Luther has decided to start the Protestant Reformation was due to the Catholic Church altering their church doctrines and believes.

Doc J

Evidence 1: It is written by the Pope Boniface VIII

Evidence 2: He declares that there is no salvation outside Rome and Roman pontiff.

Evidence 3: This document is written during the 1302, very before the Protestant Reformation.

Analysis: The fact that this document was written way before the Protestant Reformation shows how Catholic Church institution has presented doctrinal fallacies by the Pope shows how it has been collapsing since the early 14th century. To explain further about the doctrinal fallacy, the document clearly says that there is no salvation outside Rome and Roman pontiff. However, the bible clearly mentioning that “I am the way and the truth and the life” in John 14 shows how the doctrines of Catholic Church contradicts the bible which says that salvation actually lies within Christ. This doctrinal fallacy has led to angering theologians such as Martin Luther.

Doc E

Evidence 1: Shown above, there were already much mal teachings of Christian doctrine.

Evidence 2: Zwingli too argues that “the Word of God has been so dimmed and confused and paled with human ambitions and teachings.”

Evidence 3: He also directly criticizes the church institutions by calling them “invented external worship” and “invented service of God” and carries on to argue that people who learn from the Catholic Christians are becoming another anti-doctrinal people who think they are believing the Christ but are indeed not.

Analysis: This document ties in with the previous document to show that education done by Catholic Church institution has successfully persuaded lay people to making them believe that Catholic Christianity is the better church. However, the theologians argue that since, words of god, bible, does not justify many wrong doings of the pope and since it has continued to happen at night for several decades. Furthermore, Zwingli very much openly over fires criticism at the Catholic Church and its doctrines. For example, him even calling the Catholics “word of mouth calls themselves Christians” shows the fact that Zwingli not even considered the Catholics as Christians. Finally, these criticisms on the altered Catholic Church’s doctrine has contributed a lot into triggering the Protestant Reformation since Luther himself, who is considered to be the starter of the Protestant Reformation, had started the revolution by questioning the authority of sacraments and the true meaning of the bible.

 

Paragraph 2 Corruption and Criticism

Topic Sentence: The corruption of the church clergies, priests and even the Pope himself has created countless criticisms from various classes of people toward the Catholic Church which eventually led to the Protestant Reformation.

Doc G

Evidence 1: Luther, the leading individual of the Protestant Reformation was accused of heresy

Evidence 2: He begins by criticizing the doctrine of the recent Catholic Church, that they are devil in a sense that they distort the bible and reinterpreted it in a wrong way.

Evidence 3: Martin Luther focuses on the comparison between the popes, Julius II and Boniface VIII and an imperial emperor. He establishes the fact that the past Popes have acted like tyrants by describing the fact that those popes led military warfare that led to devastation.

Analysis: The fact that he first criticizes the doctrinal aspects of Catholic Fallacy shows how he lies in the same plane of Protestant Reformation. Also the fact that he describes the Popes to be tyrant like and military like shows how the popes in Luther’s eyes were corrupt and should be criticized for good.

Doc F

Evidence 1: The author claims to resist the lust of the flesh.

Evidence 2: The author also questions the wearing of lavish clothing. He goes on to say that it is a creation and desire of a mind not a grace of God.

Analysis: With the two main points that the author wants to argue, Calvin seems to be criticizing the pope and the clergies. This is evident since the Catholic church during that time period was at constant debate whether celibacy of priests was the right action and due to this, more priests started to “overflow without measure” bursting with desire for women. This led to numerous accounts of corruption within priests and other church officials. Furthermore, the criticism on clothing seems to reflect the Pope himself since during the time period of the Protestant Reformation, the popes, to show their power off, wore luxurious clothes with furs and silk, incompatible to that of any prince’s.

Doc D

Evidence 1: The document was composed in mid-16th century as the complaints by the German Princes

Analysis 1: Thus, it can be said that the document is about Protestant Reformation during the 16th century and in Germany.

Evidence and Analysis: Analyzing the Document in the context of the Protestant Reformation, German Money can be analyzed as tithe or other church related tax. Furthermore, since the tax to the church is going “over the Alps” to Rome and is being used “contrary to nature,” as a part of luxury of the Pope, the document criticizes the corruption that is going on in Rome and with the Pope.

Evidence and Analysis 2: The document states that “pastors given to us are shepherds only in name…[caring] for nothing but the sheep’s fleece.” Thus it criticizes the fact that corruption has proceeded not only in Rome but even in local levels of priests and clergies.

Analysis: shown through the criticisms in documents mentioned above, it can be reasonably inferred that corruption that has been carried on well before the Protestant Reformation has quickly tied in with the doctrinal complaints that reformers had to create numerous criticisms on the Catholic Church resulting in more people joining.

Perspective: The fact that it is written by German Princes show how groups that took part in the Protestant Reformation included noble classes along with theologians and peasants.

 

Paragraph 3 Use of Populism

Topic Sentence: Even though there were underlying social and theological reasons why Protestant reformation came into being, since reformation is a movement that involves thousands of people not regarding of theologians, the protestant reformers used various populous mediums to spread their ideas around Europe.

Doc I

Evidence 1: The description of the picture mentions a vendor in the woodcut. The wood cut too suggests that the lavishly dressed individual sitting to the very left seems to be the vendor. However, the title of the woodcut is “Hawking Indulgences” indicating that the vendor would be selling the indulgence. Furthermore, indulgence at the time prior to the protestant reformation was considered to be a sacrament, a semi-salvific act.

Evidence 2: The woodcut is created by Jörg Breu the Elder, a leading artist of the Northern Renaissance art movement and also a popular artisan that created numerous famous artworks as well as woodcuts.

Analysis: The fact that a sumptuous and luxurious, even secular looking entity is selling the indulgence, which should be carried out by a clergy, criticizes how secular the Catholic church and how corrupt the clergies has become. Furthermore, the fact that a popular artisan has created the artwork of criticism shows how protestant reformers used trendy art mediums to popularize their protestant world views and bitter critiques towards the Catholic Church, persuading them to join the Protestant church.

Doc B

Evidence 1: The dialogue is conversed between the soul of the Pope Julius II and Saint Peter when the Pope Julius II has died and risen to the gateway of heaven. The Pope Julius II has an army that has followed him since he promised them the entry to heaven in return for a religious campaign. As the Pope tries to open the door of heaven with the key of his secret money vault, Saint Peter appears and questions the Pope of his deeds on Earth. The Pope tries to persuade the Saint to let him enter, but the Saint does not allow it.

Evidence 3: The Pope seems to be calling himself the source of absolute power since he can cancel or recant and change the canon law that the whole of Europe was under.

Evidence 2: The Saint satirizes the Pope for being able to reign forever since he cannot be punished or be considered a heretic.

Evidence 3: He also adds that the Pope for being able to “cheat Christ with his laws” and saying that “the remedy [to stop the situation] in such case is not a council,” Saint also points out that the Pope not only had absolute but almost tyrannical religious power over doctrines and secular laws.

Evidence 4: This dialogue, maybe for a play, was assumed to be created by Erasmus and other individuals collaboratively. However, Erasmus denies the fact that he has written them. Thus, a group of reformers critical about the corrupt Catholic Church should have written them, in the writing style of Erasmus.

Evidence 5: This dialogue can be most likely be interpreted as a play script. Thus, it was meant to be performed in front of normal lay people.

Analysis: The fact that the dialogue involves a lot of satire of the Pope and the Catholic Christian institution and that it was created for performance purpose shows that these critical ideas of Catholic church has taken various forms of populous media in order to convey the message to a more diverse audience. Furthermore, the fact that this literary work might have been written by an individual who borrows the style of a very famous Catholic Critique, Erasmus, shows how criticisms on Church institution has been so famous that it not only was read, but were followed by other intelligentsias. Compared to the previous document, it can be seen that spread of criticisms on church institution has taken forms in various media formats. In a bigger historical context of media history, the fact that plays were a major part of media shows that the trend of expressing people’s idea has started to cover a vaster amount media types.

Doc C

Evidence 1: The ninety-five thesis composed by Martin Luther has been distributed and well-read throughout Germany and Europe.

Evidence 2: This article composed in 1517 is well after the creation of the documents discussed above.

Analysis: The fact that this article was composed after the previous two documents shows that this article may reflect the progress of the past two documents. Furthermore, the fact that it actually took only a month to spread a document around Europe shows how not only the success of printing press existed but also the underlying criticism and disapproval has continued to root on people’s mind through the works of populous media.

 

Conclusion: In conclusion, the Protestant Reformation began due to three major reasons; the theological fallacies, corruption and criticisms, and populous media to widen the spectrum of audience.