Category: Extra Curricular Activities

Seoul Photography September 8, 2017

 

At the end of Gangdong Avengers

어느 여름날 집에 있던 나에게 정윤 선생님의 메신저가 왔다.

“대현아 시간되니?”

나는 아무것도 모른채 된다고 했고, 그렇게 나는 강동어벤져스를 돕게 되었다.

첫날 나는 기대보다 걱정으로 가득 차있었다. 카페핸섬에 도착했고 처음보는 선생님들과 인사를 나누었다. 처음으로 친구들을 만나는 시간이 다가왔다. 서먹서먹한 분위기 속에서 대학생이라고 자기소개를 하고 면접실로 들어가 친구들의 지원 동기를 하나 둘 씩 읽기 시작하였다. 그들의 지원동기는 내 걱정을 져버리지 않았다. 물론 구체적인 꿈과 비젼들이 보이고 자발적으로 지원한 친구들도 있었다. 하지만 열의 아홉은 지원서에 자신의 의지보다는 부모님의 손길이 느껴졌다. 그런 지원서를 읽고 면접을 시작했다. 힐러리 클린턴 미국 민주당 대통령 후보를 존경하여 외교관이 되고 싶다고 하는 친구부터 영화 감독이 되고 싶다고 하는 친구까지, 영어를 내가 도와주지 않아도 무난하게 가이드를 할 수 있을 것이라고 느꼈던 친구부터 외국인에게 한마디라도 건낼 수 있을까라고 의심됐던 친구들까지 다양한 학생들과 대화를 나눴다. 관심과 영어실력이 천차만별인 그룹을 데리고 어떻게 프로젝트를 진행할 것인지 걱정이 커지기 시작되었다.

두번째 모임에 참석하지는 못했지만 친구들의 카톡을 엿보며 그들의 지원서와 면접에서는 느낄 수 없었던 열정을 볼 수 있었다. 바쁜 삶에서 1분씩 나누어 처음 보는 친구들과 여행 계획을 구상할 수 있는 한국 학생이 얼마나 있겠는가. 그들은 몇시간 가량 여행 동선과 날짜, 구체적인 시간별 계획을 짜고 있었다. 물론 비현실적인 면이 있기도 했지만 친구들의 프로젝트를 향한 열정과 팀에 대한 헌신에 나는 놀람을 감출 수 없었다.

그 다음, 수 차례를 걸쳐 나는 그들의 열정을 다시 느낄 수 있었다. 암사유적지에서 친구들이 가이드분의 쓸데없이 긴 설명을 들을때도, 다시 명일동에 모여 그들의 계획을 설명할때도, 밤 늦게까지 대본을 완성할때도, 투덜대면서도 귀여운 캐릭터를 만들때마저도 나는 그들이 이 프로젝트에 깊게 뿌리내리고 있다는 사실을 깨달았다. 서로 처음보는 친구들이지만 어색해하지 않고 팀을 위해서 열심히 일하는 모습이 나에게 크게 다가왔다.

서강대에 도착했다. 친구들과 돌아다니며 외국인들을 상대로 홍보했다. 나는 길거리 홍보가 얼마나 어려운지 수차례의 동아리활동으로 익히 알고 있다. 나는 이 친구들이, 더군다나 말도 잘 통하지 않는 외국인들에게 전단지를 전하며 강동 어벤져스를 소개할 수 있을지 걱정이 되었다. 이들이 나에게 반전의 열정을 보여준 것처럼 다시한번 나를 놀라게 했다. 처음에는 나에게 도와달라고 대신 말해달라고 부탁했다. 하지만 처음 시범을 보여준 후 부터는 맞언니부터 차례대로 한명씩 그 어려운 일을 해내기 시작했다. 부끄러움이 많은 친구들은 한번 말을 해본 친구들이 손잡고 외국인들에게 다가가 한마디라도 하기 시작했다. 그들의 팀워크와 배려, 그리고 한번이라도 하겠다는 성취를 향한 욕구는 나를 일깨웠다.

수많은 연습을 걸치고 드디어 축제 당일이 되었다. 혼잡한 축제 가운데 나는 혼란스러웠다. 바쁜 인파가 오가고 축제가 번잡하게 진행되는 가운데 나는 2시간 동안 친구들을 책임지고 밥을 먹이고 연습시켜야했다. 밥에 대한 수많은 의견들, 계획과 일정에 대한 수많은 제안이 있었지만 나는 내 머리에 친구들의 모든 말을 입력할 수 없었다. 막대한 책임감 앞에 무력해 있을 때 나를 도와준건 다름아닌 친구들이었다. 밥은 먹었냐며, 걱정하지 말라며 위로해주는 친구들의 말이 내 마음의 짐들을 내려놓을 수 있게 해주었다. 외국인분들이 지루하지 않게 계속 말을 걸어드리며 피곤피곤할 때에도 친구들이 장난치며 웃는 모습이 내게 큰 위로를 주었다.

집으로 돌아가며 여러 생각이 들었다. 첫번째로 이 프로젝트가 성공적이었는가? 이 프로젝트에는두 의의가 있었다. 외국인분들에게 강동의 문화를 알리는 것, 또 청소년들에게 창의적인 방법으로 영어를 가르치는것. 이 프로젝트를 마치고 Sarah의 페이스북 포스트를 읽으며 나는 외국인분들이 생각보다 이 여행을 즐겼구나라는 생각을 하게 됬었다. 또, 나는 강동 어벤져스에 지원한 친구들이 바뀌는 모습을 보았다. 그들의 영어실력은 물론이거니와 그들이 팀에 참여하는 모습, 새로운 사람들을 만났을 때 교류하려고 노력하는 모습조차 그들은 강동어벤져스를 거치기 전후의 모습을 상상하기 어려울 정도로 많이 바뀌었다. 두번째로 나는 이 프로젝트를 통해 무엇을 배웠는가? 나는 강동 어벤져스를 통해 아직 한국의 교육에는 자라날 수 있는 기회가 있다는 것을 배웠다. 한국의 정규 교육과정과 옆에서 암암리에 일어나는 사교육의 현실은 현실이라고 받아들이기 힘들 정도로 타락해있다. 또 전통만 고집해오던 한국의 교육과정에서는 학생들의 자발적 참여가 일어나지 않았다. 하지만 나는 이번 기회를 통해 한국의 중학교를 다니면서도 중학생 이상의 열정을 가질 수 있다는 것을 알았다. 이런 교육과정 속에서도 꾿꾿히 자신의 꿈을 쫒아갈 수 있는 인재들이, 또 자신의 자발적 참여를 유발할 수 있는 프로그램이 생각보다 많다는 것을 배웠다.

나도 고작 고등학생이다. 내가 도와준 친구들과 몇살 차이나지 않는 형이자 오빠이다. 내가 그들에게 인생에 대한 조언을 해줄만큼 다이나믹한 경험을 해본 것도 아니고 오히려 그들과 동등한 위치에 서서 배워야한다. 하지만 친구들을 가르치면서 이들에게 비추어진 나의 모습들을 보며 나는 내가 배우고 있는 환경과 태도에 문제점들을 발견했고 내 자신을 바꾸려 노력하겠다. 그런 의미에서 강동 어벤져스라는 프로그램은 복합적인 이점들이 많은 것 같다.

The function of education is to teach one to think intensively and to think critically. Intelligence plus character – that is the goal of true education. – Martin Luther King Jr.

교육의 목적은 누군가가 의도적으로, 또 비판적인 시선을 갖고 생각할 수 있는 능력을 가르치는 것이다. 지능과 인품 – 그것이 교육의 참된 목적이다. – 마틴 루터 킹 Jr.

Amsa Prehistoric Settlement Site Tour Guide Script

Familiarize yourselves with the tourists.

Brief introduction of prehistoric and Neolithic ages in front of the timeline

Everyone! We are in the prehistoric settlement sites in Amsadong.

  • What is prehistoric ages? What is the difference between prehistoric and historic ages? Can anyone guess?

We know about the past mainly through written records. However, people of the prehistoric ages did not have language. So, scientists use nothing but the artifacts to analyze the lives of prehistoric ages.

  • What is Neolithic period?

Prehistoric age is divided into Paleolithic, Neolithic, bronze, and iron age according to the types of tools that they used. Different from the Paleolithic era in which people used flaked stone tools, the main tool of the Neolithic era was the grinded stone tool. The artifacts that you are about to see shows that the people of the Neolithic period grinded stone to create tools. As you may have guessed from the name of this place, one of the many characteristics of the Neolithic era is that people settled down. Previously, people were nomads following animals and fruits. However, with the Neolithic revolution, people settled down. This was because the development of tools allowed people to sustain their lives in one location by farming and fishing. Given that Amsadong is near the Han river, people started to farm millet and fish at the same time. Thus, food flourished which increased the population.

If you look closely, you will be able to see a lot of holes. Those holes were used for three major purposes. Firstly, people during the Neolithic era fixed clay pots in the ground to store foods. Secondly, the holes can be seen as the evidence that the Neolithians used pillars to build houses. Lastly, the hole in the middle was used to store fire which raised the temperature in the house and cooked.

As you see, the house is dug out from the ground. The reason they started to live underground is that the house was warmer during winters and cooler during summers.

Here, only the dugout sites of the settle remain. However, the people raised pillars and covered them with reed and Eulalia

  • Do you see the beveled surface? Can you guess what they are?

Those are fossils of acorns and wooden pillars that got burnt in fire. Unfortunately, this house was burnt down by a fire. However, because of the accident, the evidences that show the lives of the people remain. Also, the burnt down remains allowed the scientists to carbon date the evidence which proved that these artifacts are from the Neolithic period. The fire was unfortunate for the settlers. Yet it is fortunate for us that they remained for us to research.

Net weights were tools that helped nets to sink better. A distinct characteristic of the net weights is that they have dents on the side. The dents were used to keep the stones from slipping out of the net.

Joint fishing hook is a fishing hook made by joining stones with animal bones. Animal bones were weak that they broke easily and the stones were not sharp enough. So, the joint fishing hooks combined the advantages of the two materials to fish better.

People started to hunt better because of the development of tool. They grinded stones to make them sharp which enhanced the function of stone knives and arrow tips.

They used these stone grinders to cook acorns and other grains.

These are dolls and clamp masks. The real artifacts are smaller than what they appear to be in the picture. So, they were not used for practical uses. Yet, it is an artifact that allows us to glimpse at the beliefs of the Neolithic people. These masks and dolls were made in hope of prosperity.

As seen in the name, the comb patterned clay pots are designed with comb patterns. We predict that the Neolithic people were inspired by the rain to design the clay pot.

Apart from the simple rain design, the pots have other designs. The upper section usually is patterned with parallel slanted lines inspired by the rain. The pattern in the middle section is called 어골무늬 which means the fish bone pattern. The lower section was either inscribed with the comb pattern or the fish bone pattern.

There were many functions of these clay pots. They were used to both cook and store foods. We have mentioned that the pots were fixed on the ground, right? It was because the clay pots had a pointy bottom like this.

The settlement site that we have seen inside was covered like this. The cover was made by straw.

There are more than one or two houses. Neolithic people formed communities where many families were joint together. This shows their social life.

The structure on top of the house is called 까치집 which means the sparrow nest. It functioned as a chimney so that the smoke from the fire inside the house could easily go out of the house.

The Amsa settlement site has interactive programs in which you can experience history thorugh many activities. You can choose to make comb patterned pots, miniature houses, arrow and bows, or clamp masks.

Did you enjoy the time here? Amsa settlement site is on its way of becoming recognized as a UNESCO cultural cultural heritage. We would appreciate if you participated in the campaign. Your awareness will help us.

La Urgencia

Alberto, Angel, Carlos y Xavier

Los personajes

  • Alberto: El jugador de hockey sobre hielo quien amputa su brazo por el hockey
  • Angel: El medico de Alberto
  • Carlos: El medico de Xavier
  • Xavier: El trabajador de un fabrica india quien amputa su pierna

(Los médicos se encontran enfrente de la sala de cirugía. Ven dos pacientes a quienes necesitan curar)

 

(Ángel esta leyendo el documento por la cirugía antes de entrar la sala de cirugía. Carlos viene. Ángel deja el documento. Carlos amontona su documento encima del documento de Ángel)

 

Carlos: ¡Hola, mi amigo antiguo! ¿Qué estás haciendo?

Angel: Tengo una cirugía para operar.

Carlos: ¿Quién es tu paciente?

Angel: Mi paciente es Alberto. Necesito curar su herida. Su brazo fue amputado. Un accidente amputó el brazo.

Carlos: Pues, mi paciente es Xavier. Él perdió el brazo.

Angel: Les duelen mucho… se tiene que operar lo antes posible.

Carlos: Sí. Sin embargo, estoy muy cansado y estresado.

Angel: ¿Por qué?

Carlos: Cambié  mi trabajo de tiempo parcial a trabajo de tiempo completo, y estoy sufriendo el horario. Adémas, mi nota en la universidad no es bueno y estoy en mucha ansiedad

Angel: Aunque estás estresado, espero que no olvides revisar los documentos antes de la cirugía y escribas el trabajo después de la cirugía.

Carlos: Sí, por supuesto. ¡Cómo puedo olvidar! ¡Nos damos prisa, o podemos llegar tarde para la cirurgía!

Angel: ¡Hasta pronto!

 

(Angel recoge el documento de arriba y entra EN el cuarto. Carlos va a otra dirección con EL documento restante.)

(Después de la cirugía, Ángel y Carlos salen de la sala de cirugía.)

Alberto: ¡Ahhhh! ¡Tio me ciento fatal!

Xavier: Por fin te despiertas.

Alberto: Sí…. Fue una cirugía larga y cansada. Cuánto tiempo pasaba despúes de me entré?

Xavier: No sé, acabo de despertarme.

Alberto: Interesante. Usualmente, las cirugías no ocurren simultáneamente…

Xavier: Bueno, Me tenían que operar rápidamente.

Aberto: Hmm? Mi herida fue un desastre también. ¿Dónde te lastimaste?

Xavier: Se queda mi pie derecho en la máquina por accidente.

Alberto: ¡Deje de bromea!

Xavier: ¡No! ¡Realmente ! Soy un trabajador de fábrica en India. Una vez, llegué tarde y mi jefe confiscó mi tarjeta de indentificación. Estaba bajo de mucho estrés… Entonces, iba distraído cuando estaba trabajando y me equivocó.

Alberto: Lo siento – ¡porque perdí el brazo en lugar de una pierna!

Xavier: ¿Por qué?

Alberto: Estaba jugando al hockey sobre hielo, y un otro jugador lo pisó. Entonces,  perdí mi brazo.

Xavier: Es muy triste… A propósito, por qué estaba jugando al hockey sobre hielo?

Alberto: Porque soy un atleta de hockey sobre hielo. Tuve un partido hace una semana. Sabia que el capitán del equipo rival me odia mucho. Pensaba que el equipo se pegó conmigo más frequentemente que de costumbre. Les dije que pida disculpas, pero ellos no lo hicieron[JS14] .

Xavier: ¡Qué pena!

(Carlos y Ángel entran a la sala)

 

Carlos: ¡Eh, os despertasteis!

Angel: Estoy feliz que estéis bien.

Alberto: Gracias doctores. Me siento mejor.

Carlos: Sí, es bueno para oír que os estáis recuperando.

Angel: Teníamos buena suerte. La cirugía fue perfecto. Ojalá os vayáis a recuperar pronto.

Xavier: Sí, gracias otra vez doctores. ¡Estoy emocionado por ver mis piernas adjuntado! Podéis ayudarnos levantar las mantas para que poder ver nuestros brazos y piernas?

Carlos: Por supuesto, vamos a ayudaros.

 

(Carlos y Ángel levantan las mantas para descubrir que la pierna es con Alberto y el brazo es con Xavier. Todas personas no pueden hablar porque estan impactado por la situación.)

 

Xavier: ¡Qué pasó!

Alberto: ¿Dónde está mi brazo? No necesito otra pierna.

Carlos: Lo siento mucho.

Angel: Pienso que se me olvidó vuestros nombres y intercambié los documentos. Teníamos muchas presiones.

Xavier: ¡Y qué! No me importa qué estabais haciendo! Quiero mi pierna de vuelta.

Alberto: ¡Yo también! Quiero mi brazo de vuelta.

Carlos: Pero… No hay nada que podamos hacer.

Angel: Por favor, nos dices cualquier cosa que necesitéis.

Alberto: Quiero tener alguna cirugía. Gratis.

Xavier: Buena idea.

Angel: Pero… devolvimos su pierna y su brazo a su sitio.

Carlos: (Furioso) ¡Bueno! Estoy estresado también. ¡Déjame amputar tus brazos y piernas otra vez, así que podemos darles otra cirugía!

Xavier and Alberto: ¡Lo siento!!!

 

(Carlos y Ángel los dos contratan un cuchillo y simulan cortar los brazos y las piernas de Xavier y Alberto.)
Fin

The Invisible Hand: Intellectuals’ Reaction to Adam Smith’s Values and Ideals Specified in The Wealth of Nations before 1848

The Invisible Hand: Intellectuals’ Reaction to Adam Smith’s Values and Ideals Specified in The Wealth of Nations before 1848

The Wealth of Nations since its first publication in 1776 has been the most read economic text and is considered the foundation of modern economy. His views on the economic system and its function were revolutionary against the traditional values of mercantilism. This fostered a second enlightenment era of practicality in which numerous interest groups are created. Thus, since different interest groups advocated for different purpose, numerous groups of intellectuals reacted differently toward Smith’s view. Many intellectuals’ ideas were aligned with Smith’s view; however, there were voices that both doubted and criticized his ideology.

Many economic philosophers were in agreement with Adam Smith’s idea regarding governmental interference in economic activities. Smith stated that for any commodity there is a natural price and a market price. Natural price is the cost of producing a certain good. It includes everything from the cost of the raw material to the wage of the workers working to produce the commodity. Market price is the price that a commodity is sold. It depends on two more variable, the demand for the commodity and the will of the supplier to sell the merchandise at a specific price. A consumer will buy a product at the lowest price possible when a vendor will sell the product at the highest price possible. Thus, for a good to be sold, both consumer and vendor have to come to an agreement where both parties are satisfied with the price. This is the price that the commodity is traded in, the market price. One acknowledgment has to be made that in the process of price determination only supply and demand function as the variable. This leads to the concept of ‘individual hand’ of free market Laissez-Faire principle. Adam Smith explains that without external force that determines the price, free market will adjust itself to make mutual agreements between supply and demand, fixing the price. Adam Smith expands this concept to explain wage. Wage too consists of natural wage and market wage. Natural wage is the minimum amount of money that the worker needs to sustain life. Thus, it will vary depending on the price of the worker’s necessities such as food, clothes, shelter and conveniences. Market wage is the actual wage given to the worker. As the demand for worker increases the wage would rise and if the worker population increases the wage would decrease. The principle of Laissez-Faire also applies in the case of wage for it behaves similarly to price. Influenced by the theories of Adam Smith, David Ricardo argues that for any labor, the market wage will tend toward the natural wage, which he calls the iron law of wages. Ricardo admits the fact that market wage can fluctuate if the supply and demand for labor is not met: it can stay either above or below the natural wage. If the market wage is above the natural wage, the workers will have extra money to consider health care and also family enlargement which will increase the population of the workers, decreasing the market wage. The high market wage will counterbalance with the decrease to get closer to the natural wage. On the contrary, when market wage is below natural wage, the workers will not be able to pay for their necessities which will result in starvation. This will decrease the worker population bringing the market price up to match the natural price. Ricardo’s law shows that Smith’s view of ‘Invisible Hand’ holds true for labors as well. This expanded to a popular belief that wages should not be intervened by governmental legislation but has to be left solely to the competition in market. It also leads to ideas that state that despite the original purpose of the law, governmental interference will just end up “[deteriorating] the condition of both poor and rich” (Ricardo).  This is proven by the Pamphlet: In Defense of Laissez-Faire. The author of the pamphlet, similar to Ricardo, states that “in [the legislative body’s] attempts to improve… the condition of the poor, [they] have not only multiplied the number, but reduced them to a state of degradation…” (Pamphlet: In Defense of Laissez-Faire). The author logically supports his claim by giving historical examples and showing that each laws passed in attempt to improve the condition of the poor were repealed and were substituted by other laws. He starts with the bill of Sir Robert Peel and continues to bill of Sir John Holiouse which shows how selective welfare does not work at all. Additionally, the author outlines how the trend of legislation changes from targeting specific industry to enforcing general welfare of society. To introduce Adam Smith’s views on universal improvement on condition, in The Wealth of Nations, he mentions that through governmental subsidies to teachers, primary education became more available which enabled potential economic growth but more importantly, general social wellbeing. The Pamphlet continues to say that as the legislation reached its final stages with Mr. Sadler, laws started to support universal improvement rather than industry-specific regulations. To analyze the history after Mr. Sadler’s legislation, numerous laws helped women grow in power as well as children be educated and fostered in a safer environment. These trends on new regulations passed show that industry-specific regulations in attempt of improving quality of living for the poor did not help them at all but worsened their situation that new laws had to be passed to maintain the level of social and economic discriminations. These then prove that governmental interference were indeed a worsening factor of polarization of the rich and poor which holds to the beliefs of Laissez-Faire thus Adam Smith. Hence, intellects such as Ricardo and the author of the Pamphlet are in full agreement with Smith in terms of governmental interference.

There were also views that agreed with the general definition of the Smithian concept but desired to expand the characteristics of it. Adam Smith defined rent as the payment for using land. As one of the three variables that define price, rent was considered as an important quantity to be tested upon. However, unlike the price or wage that depended on supply and demand present in market, rent is independent of supply and demand. Firstly, the amount of land is limited. This shows how oversupply of land is impossible. Thus, no matter how much land is available or how many people desire land, the rent is not hindered. Instead, rent is innate within the land. This means that with the innate qualities of the land itself, the rent is determined. Thus, regardless of what the tenant does with the land, rent has to be paid. Also, although the tenant has failed to produce, the rent has to be paid. The minimum rent is determined by the maximum profit that the landowner can make out of the land. This is because if the rent was to be below the maximum profit that the landowner can make, he would cultivate the land for himself. In general, because grains as a staple crop are considered to have a constant if not increasing demand, the profit that the landowner would yield by growing grain in his field would equal the minimum rent. However, rent may rise in respect to additional qualities that the land possesses. Those qualities are the potential produce that the land can yield. They are largely divided into three categories: the potential usage of land, natural resources available in the land, and the utilities that are available in or around the land regardless of the utility’s owner. However, despite the existence of factors of increase in rent, there isn’t a numerical calculation to determine how the factors would affect rent. Thus, all the calculation is done solely in favor of the landowner. Even so because land is limited, rent hinders depending on the landowner. In this sense, rent is like monopoly. Intellectuals who find interest in the topic such as Thomas Malthus does agree on the basics of Adam Smith’s statement. However, Malthus questions the extents on Smith’s claim that rent is monopoly. In his book, An Inquiry into the Nature and Progress of Rent, Malthus claims that rent exists because price of raw material produced from the land is higher than the cost of producing it. He then asks what causes for the high price of raw materials. He further researches on different books regarding rent and claims that although many views on rent do have raw material as a component of rent, they do not consider the price of raw material leading to a logical fallacy: rent can be calculated without the price of raw material produced when the raw material is what gives value to rent. To account for the problems, Malthus gives his own interpretation on what the price of raw material is dependent on. According to him price depends on the quality of the soil as well as other natural reasons. These natural reasons unlike the prior notion on rent cannot be controlled by the landowners. Through this argument, Malthus claims that rent can be considered monopoly except that rent is not entirely up to the landowner to be decided. The example of Malthus and his views on rent show that some intellectuals responded to Adam Smith’s idea with agreement and doubt.

However, unlike the popular response to Adam Smith’s views of free trade between individuals, some reactions toward Smith criticizes the faults and assumptions of his views on market and instead calls for a different society. In capitalistic society, the major driving force of human being is the individual interest. One may have their interest lie on basic supplies such as food and clothing where others’ may lie on luxury goods. Their pursuit of individual interest leads them to make interactions in the common place, market. The food demander may provide service to others in order to earn enough money to buy food. The luxury demander, usually of the higher class, would use other means such as factory running or rent collecting to earn money to buy luxury goods. However, history proves that, at any circumstance, an individual will maximize their profit. This has become the general assumption of capitalism: people think rationally to maximize their wealth. However, assessing the assumption once more, human being’s innate greed can be easily spotted. A person tends to be greedier the more luxury he or she can enjoy. Thus, the person demanding luxury goods will tend to strangle the workers in his or her factory to generate benefit for oneself as much. Charles Fourier gives historical examples on how human greed has negatively impacted society as well as the economy in his work, On Economic Liberalism. He first says that the Dutch East India once burned the cinnamon in public to raise its price and continues to say that if a merchant was to get hold of grain during a terrible famine, he would be able to sell all his supply despite of the ridiculous price that he would ask for the grain because all supply of grain would be within him while the demand continues to grow. Fourier addresses this issue not as a failure of the system but as a moral problem related to human greed. Also, even after the agricultural revolution and the industrial revolution, the Irish Potato Famine illustrates this problem with great depth. Ireland was a potato-dependent country where most of the social participants regarded potato as their staple crop. This led to most of the Irish farmers harvesting potato in order to reduce import from foreign countries. In the late 1840s, a potato disease arrived in Ireland to hinder potato production. This led to huge starvation which led to increased deaths. England on the counterpart observed the situation. When the famine crisis occurred, the English merchants and legislature blocked all imports to Ireland and bought the remaining grains in Ireland. When Ireland was blocked from all sources of food, England sold their grain extremely expensively. Many economics as well politicians criticize this event as the failure of general morality of the English bourgeoisie. This view aligns with Fourier’s view in that they encounter economic issues with moral understandings. Fourier counters these problems regarding human greed with alternative types of system. He calls for a system in which merchants are held “subordinated to the welfare of the mass of society.” He compares merchants to doctors to say that merchants cannot ignore the social wellbeing and polarized economic standards like how doctors cannot abandon a sick patient to be left dead. However, interestingly enough, although he supports restricted merchant authorities, he does not mention government as the decider of limitation. Fourier believes that morality and basic human ethics of individual merchants should be the primary source of regulation on themselves. This is evident in his work On Economic Liberalism since he emphasizes the necessity of restrictions on merchants simultaneous to public’s dependence on them by comparing the “infallibility of the pope” to of the merchants. Fourier, now categorized as a Utopian Socialist, urged for communities such as phalanstery. Phalanstery refers to a sustainable society which is founded upon the value of universal equality. His reaction against the faults of capitalism as well as the ideas related to moral based restrictions on merchants influenced future works on both socialism and anarchism.

In conclusion, according to what different intellectuals emphasized, their agreement with Smithian values differed. David Ricardo and the author of Pamphlet: In Defense of Laissez-Faire valued the free market ideas which very much aligned with Adam smith where Charles Fourier emphasized equality and morality resulting in criticisms toward Adam Smith. Although their views were different, it cannot be disputed that Adam Smith’s ideas written in The Wealth of Nations has shaped the world today and will continue to influence the future generations to come with different reactions as it did for intellectuals before 1848.

 

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